Galeopsis speciosa (Lamiaceae): an Open Vegetation seed bank community at Worsley in Salford (v.c.59), revealed during construction of the new Royal Horticultural Society Garden at Bridgewater


  • Michael J. Crawley Imperial College London



seed bank, landscaping, RHS, introduced species, establishment, wildflower seed mix


This paper provides a baseline flora for the site of the new garden of the Royal Horticultural Society at Worsley New Hall in Salford (v.c.59). During construction, 35,000 m3 of top-soil, sub-soil and spoil were stripped and stored onsite; species recruiting from these seed banks were monitored 2017-2020, leading to the description of a new Galeopsis speciosa Open Vegetation plant community. Four commercial wildflower mixes were used during post-construction landscaping in 2019, and their establishment was assessed in 2020. It will be interesting to follow the survival of these introduced species, many of which are not native to the site.